1/ The 17th parallel is in the province of Quang Tri, along the historic river Ben Hai, This is where the temporarily separated into two after the Geneva Accords in 1954 Vietnam.
2/ Sites to visit in the province of Quang Tri
*/ The underground system Vinh Ling
Johnson said: "We must transform this territory and push the stone age."That war of destruction that has continued to the objective" must somehow extend the border of the United States to the 17th parallel !" And a half million tons of bombs was poured on a small village 80km²: people who relied on the land for survival had to dig tunnels and trenches to avoid extermination. The family was divided into small groups to not be completely wiped out, some going to take refuge in the forest, some in tunnels, and defending the last remaining villages. 114 tunnels over 40km are then hand-dug. So life went from birth, education, loving, fun, entertainment for 8 years, 1.80m below the surface of the earth.
Vinh Linh is then recognized as the demarcation zone between the north and the south by the Geneva Accords in 1954 and the Ben Hai River is a natural and temporary border. Americans do not respect the decision and added that the events in the Gulf of Tonkin, they bombard the area for safety. From 1965 to 1972 every day, Vinh Linh suffered bombing B52, cannons on the other side of the river fleet 7 of the East Sea. On average, for 8 years, every person has undergone seven tons of bombs. Vinh Linh becomes a legend. In 1966, Vinh Linh hollow sliced 1 300km equivalent to half the length of Vietnam and 1300 pits and shelters; not to mention features such as wells, main roads that cross the mountains and hills, the ramifications as an emergency exit, homes, warehouses, depots, Hoang Cam kitchen, entrance doors. Inside the tunnels form Z aus dimensions of 1.6 to 1.9 m high and 0.9 to 1.2 m wide or are dispensaries, maternity, conference room, theater, the nursery, kindergarten ...
Conclusion: During 2 years, were dug:
- 3 800 000 000 000 m3 of soil from 1966 to 1968,
- Each tunnel is a miniature of a village 40 - 80ha
- The tunnel is illuminated only in cases of extreme need to save oil.
- Hoang Cam kitchen
- More than 60 children were born in the tunnel,
- "Singing music eclipsed the sound of bombs"
- Housing of civilians as military
- Clinical and hospital
- Warehouses for food and weapons
- Three stages 8 to 25m
*/ The Vinh Moc tunnels
Feature: Vinh Moc Tunnels - a well known as an underground village constructed to avoid bombardments during the American War of Independence (1965-1966) place.
Located 13 km east of National Highway 1A and just 6 km away from the sea, the Vinh Moc tunnels has become a favorite destination for foreign tourists, especially American war veterans.
The network of tunnels is as spectacular a testament to the endurance, wisdom and bravery of the local people in their struggle for independence. Tunnels used for thousands of meters long. But now there are only 1700 m. This underground network is linked to 13 doors (seven opening to the sea and six in the hills). The structure is divided into three layers, the deepest being 23m underground. They are connected by a major axis which is 1.6 to 768 m high and 1.8 m 1.2 to 1.5 m wide. It is linked to the sea by seven exits, which also function as ventilators and a nearby hill by another six.
Along both sides of the main axis are accommodating chambers. There is also a large meeting room with a capacity of 50-80 people, which was used for meetings, movies, art, surgery shows, and even the delivery of babies (17 were born here). There are also four air wells, two watch stations and three water wells. The village featured unique Hoang Cam stoves, named after the general who invented the store to allow underground cooking without emitting smoke, thus evading discovery by bombers.
Before entering the tunnels, visitors are shown the poster of this brutal period in the history of Vietnam by some pictures. They provide a contrast to the vitality of the local population over time during the war, celebrating the victory day.
The war has forced many people to leave their villages or is living under the ground. Vinh Moc residents have opted for the second solution. A little nowadays imagine that the rubber tree plantations of pepper used as a fierce battlefield during 1966-1972 Vinh Moc was a place for food and ammunition to Con Co Island.
The region has suffered tens of thousands of tons of bombs by U.S. warplanes. The invaders want to return the area to the " stone age" and launched a destructive war there. It was felt that local residents endured the equivalent of 500 per day heavy rockets.
In 1976, the Ministry of Culture and Information recognized that the Vinh Moc tunnels national heritage site and included in a list of particularly important historical sites. To ensure the safety of visitors, the tunnels were restored with reinforced concrete and internal lightening
*/ The Truong Son National Cemetery
This cemetery honors the memory of tens of thousands of North Vietnamese soldiers killed in the Annamite Mountain Range, along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The rows of white tombstones lie out of sight. Many graves are empty and bear the names of some of the 300,000 Vietnamese fighters missing. A triangular stele overlooks the cemetery atop a hill. You can read on one side, tributes Vietnamese dignitaries all those who worked on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and a poem by To Huu.
*/ Khe Sanh is a valley surrounded by mountains and forests in the province of Quang Tri, relief comparable to Dien Bien Phu. During the years 1966-1967, one of the largest U.S. bases was installed, defended by three points fortification. 10,000 men were stationed there at least. Despite the obligation of the staff to defend at all costs the base of Khe Sanh, that bastion of American forces fell 9 July 1968, after five months of fighting.
*/ Doc Mieu Base, located 8 km south of the river Ben Hai, Doc Mieu base was to block incursions of Vietnamese forces. There remains today as scrap scrap amid bomb craters and shells.
*/ Ben Hai River
The Hien Luong Bridge allowed crossing the Ben Hai, which marked North-South line. It was bombed in 1967 by the U.S. Army. A new bridge was built at the same location after the cease -fire signed in Paris in 1973.
*/ Cua Tung Beach
This former resort where Emperor Bao Dai had on vacation, is located north of the mouth of the Ben Hai. Many bomb craters are still visible between cultures. Off, looms the island Con Co.
**/ Other military sites
Other military sites, which are more often than the remaining piles of scrap and carcasses of bunkers between bomb craters include: the basis of Con Thien, the Rockpile, the bridge over the Dakrong, Aluoi camp Lang Vay.
3/ To zone D.M.Z
The section between My Chanh Tri Q is 20km, baptized by the Western press the "epouventable road". It is also the road or there is the more cemeteries Vietnam. That said the ferocity of the offensive in Summer 1972. In 1973, the exchange of prisoners took place in the Thach Han River, has puùi Ai Tu, the former American base, it was important airport of helicopters.
DMZ is the area of 2 sides of the river Ben Hai, 8km wide, and extends from the South China Sea to the border of Laos. From 1966 to 1973, the war has transformed this area villagoise fields very bloody battle that decided the balance of millitary force of war. Like other rivers of the Vietnam, the Ben Hai flows from west to east, the border is provisional since 1954 according to the Geneva agreement. This is both the line of demarcation, the misfortune, hope, indignation, the implacable hatred of the people who preferred the reunification of the territory of the country.
Road No.9, which goes to Laos, paralelle with the line of demarcation , is chosen as the site of the decisive battle, with 3 reasons:
1. Symbol rivierre Ben Hai
2. Intersecting State Highway 1
3. HCM which wins the track, the most important supply
Since 1966, the campaign of the American War "to Destroy Detect" leads a bombing on the drill center, thousands of soldiers from the Air Force Maritime territory. In July 1966, the North declared the general mobilization face has the American gigantic force. Alas! battlefields are chosen!
On this road, there were bases such as Camp Carole, Mutter 's Ridge, Ap Bia Mountain, Hamburger Hill, Base battle of Khe Sanh, the base village Vei, Mount Rockpile ...! The Americans use it as the base of fire (≥ 400m altitude). Herein, the transport is helicopter. This road is well used as the line of Mc. Namara, according to the project : the fence is Alternating watchtowers, luminee lanterns high voltage. Agent Orange opened a couloire 20km wide - area shaved homeless - They put 240 million mines gravel (7cm), 300 million bombs button (such as tablets) that informs the standard, and the objective would attack cannons, rockets and showers of bombs, millions of electronic objects, electronic devices, a sound recording movements. This line costs 1 billion.
Con Tien is a 3.5 from the line of demarcation. This is the basis of fire that protects the line, but that is often attacked by the artillery of the VC. That 's the scary crisis Americans. Con Tien called "machine grind the meat!"
After the war in Vietnam, the story speaks well of nightmare Dien Bien Phu - Khe Sanh; we know that it is the strategic cunning of VC.
4/ Historic Ho Chi Minh Trail
It is rather a network of trails through the jungles. This large north-south artery, through the roughest and most picturesque regions of Vietnam bears the prestigious name of HCM . The track has great way HCM is a story!
The line of demarcation cuts Vietnam just has the most tightens place. On the south bank of the river Ben Hai, the enemy evacuated the entire population, and this white area was full of a multitude of positions, minefields, barbed dams, of electronic detection devices, together constitute the line McNamara. An ant is unable even to pass, affirmed the enemy leaders because, in addition to the waterproof barrier, airplanes and helicopters American affectuaient continual round, strafing, bombing a profusion (nhieu vo so) throughout the region. No.9 road transects Vietnam, ranging up Savaakhet, blocking the whole Indochinese peninsula.
Because of the bombing day and night, the place corridordevanait hell. By dint of great sacrifices and efforts, the North has arrived to move trucks, boats, carts until the 17th paralelle. According to HCM, we could not leave the south alone marquisards fight unarmed against the invaders. Messages, weapons, food, soldiers had to pass at all costs. Communications should also be safeguarded and further enhanced price has always!
Finally, one lane remained "long cordillera" in fact it is a whole mountain ranges of hills and plateaus that stretch over 1 000km from north to south. Which was an obstacle in apparently passable, with its impenetrable forests, its steep peaks, pestilential diseases had become a way of bonding. Thus in 1959, a special unit with a mission to transform the Cordillera by a long way linking North-South: Unite the Service of 559 First of all, these men were a study tracequi to communicate with. the south, while avoiding aerial and ground attacks. The first obstacle was the forest and the mountains, but against, they protected them our soldiers against the enemy. They must live, fight in the forests of various types: forest monsoon dense, tropical, humid; clear forests or tropical savanna; creepers, bamboos, epiphytes aries (cay bieu sinh), the orchids, forniront fighters what build their shelters. Bamboo shoots, tubers, wild herbs will participate in the kitchen. It is illegal to hunt birds, animals not to attract the attention of the enemy. What are effrayabes : the creatures that pullullaient, ants, termites, terrible sansues drills that you stick to the body, clinging ten on your legs on the torso; mosquitoes, ticks (ve hut mau) are vectors of deadly diseases. It was also feared venomous snakes proliferate (sinh san) easily.
With the Americans, the war prennait a major daily increasing. It was sinking deeper into the forests, climb even the steepest slopes, the highest peaks. On the network is extending 17th parralèle until Sgn, transported back to men, a back of elephants, a pedicab relay; forbidden to be on the vehicle!
In 1965, the Americans landed heavily in the south, a bomb excessively (four muc). The southern army is considerably reinforced. Donations, weapons and reinforcements had to be sent in abundance for the southern front. While road construction began for motorized convoys. Pierced the roads steep mountainsides in the heart of the densest forests, crossed countless rivers and streams by gues (Luoi da) made of stone, hidden under running water. IT WAS NOT WAR! Facing an American aviation 's most advanced, cahcer of construction sites several kilometers of roads, bridges, fords or a tray. Cnvois the thousands of tons of weapons, food from the north to the south. However, leaving the fleet 7, airplanes, helicopters, spy planes, reconnaissance were round 24/24h; of a suspect index was reported a few minutes after, ran the fighters, bombers; each strafing, were throwing rockets, other saupoudraient field a rain of bombs, napalm, defoliants to.
Girls are also mobilized the army, with shovels, picks, wheelbarrows, clung to these sites. These are clubs (chiu tran) day and night bombardment. Of the alert was sounded, everyone enterraint in the shelter along the road to resume work soon, when the plane is gone. Spotters reperaient the bombs failed to explode is; volunteers were involved in the defuse the risk of their lives, or make them explode. Under the Bombs, youth, with the flag in hand, guided the trucks to prevent them from rolling or indicate a path newly built derivation. The night did not stop the fight: the trucks rolled with small candles referred in the frame. Of Junes, a lantern in his hand, guiding them through the maze (Quanh co) of craters (ho bom) of entardives bombs, boulders, or has avoid flares. The only sollution, facing the deluge (con hong thuy) rockets, bombs, "it is absolutely fawns: GO ahead!." No plane has no windshield, and carcass (bo khung) was briblee bullets. They only rolled 10 or 20 km/ day.
From a journey of a thousand miles , it was necessary to build a network of 16000km.
We also used the waterways, the track without issue - not only with the most diverse boats, but often jetantsimplement in the current plastic bags containing food and ammunition, which has spotted tens of kilometers further away.
As the war took on a growing scale , as motorized vehicles came into play, the need for fuel was necessarily. How come the fuel 000km 2? Tankers are in danger. In 1968, we decided to build a pipeline with purely artisanal means : a network of tubes by more than 3 000km.
Tanks, heavy artillery went into spare parts. The wounded received emergency care; difficult operations were done by experienced surgeons.
If weapons and food are conveyed by trucks, men simply went on foot to avoid unnecessary losses: this is the image of a fighting nation! The watchword is NORMALISE DAILY LIFE and not to lead a life of slices.
It was the American technology: electronics, laser, infrared, last flight cry, the more sophisticated devices that were ceder in this fight wear (tra gia dat do).
More than ever, the HCM track played its crucial role in the strategic artery. Many tanks and artillery parts, food were coming this way.
This is Maxwelle Taillor Chief of Staff of U.S. forces himself who denounced: "We underestimate the determination and sacrifice of VNamiens. All our efforts to cut the HCM track were in vain"
The figures given:
1 Length: 16,000 km Total length of bridges: 4,316m
2 Volume of earthworks 7,300,000 m3 Raids Aviation: 111000 times
3 Tonnages transported 45 million slaughtered Aircraft: 2450000
4 Length of pipeline. 3 082 km Fuel Volume: 56 million m3
Former military sites